Archive For The “Services” Category

Anna Halprin

Anna Halprin







“one of the most important and original thinkers in performance” —  Richard Schechner

Since the late 1930s Anna Halprin has been creating revolutionary directions for dance, inspiring artists in all fields. Richard Schechner, editor of TDR: The Drama Review, calls her “one of the most important and original thinkers in performance.” Merce Cunningham said, “What’s she’s done … is a very strong part of dance history.” Through her students Trisha Brown, Yvonne Rainer, and Simone Forti, Anna strongly influenced New York’s Judson Dance Theater, one of the seedbeds of postmodern dance. She also collaborated with such innovative musicians as Terry Riley, LaMonte Young, Morton Subotnik, and Luciano Berio, as well as poets Richard Brautigan, James Broughton, and Michael McClure. Among the many other important artists who have studied with her are Robert Morris, Chip Lord, Meredith Monk, Eiko and Koma, Wanda Coleman, Janine Antoni, Carrie Mae Weems, Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, Dohee Lee, and Dana and Shinichi Iova-Koga.


Dancing my cancer (1975)

In 1971, Halprin was diagnosed with a malignant tumor in her colon; this sudden shift in her life inspired her to investigate and create associations to make a personal ritual that helped her healing process. She used the investigative and therapeutic tools she had learned from Fritz Perls in order to understand and duplicate the psychological behaviors put into performances. The disease also inspired her to release her emotions through dance in pieces such as “Darkside Dance”.  Afterwards, she ceased to perform publicly. Her quest for healing encouraged the community around her and, with her daughter in 1978, she co-founded the Tamalpa Institute. Together, they created a non-profit research and educational arm of the San Francisco Dancer’s Workshop that offers training in a creative process integrating psychology, body therapies, and education with dance, art, and drama, as a path toward healing and resolving social conflict.




Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys, German Sculptor and Performance Artist

Movements and Styles: Conceptual ArtFluxus




Woman/Animal Skull (1956-1957)

Artwork description & Analysis: This work on paper dates from Beuys’s early experimental phase, which was characterized by the artist’s production of thousands of drawings under a self-imposed program of aesthetic asceticism. Beuys worked at this time mostly in solitude, as though under a strenuous search for self-enlightenment, simultaneously seeking a new artistic language that would combine the spiritual and the physical, the solid and the fluid, the ephemeral and the permanent. Woman/Animal Skull suggests a melding of the rational and the instinctual, or of the human and the animal minds out of a primordial state of organic chaos.

Woman/Animal Skull (1956-1957)

Fat Chair (1964-1985)

Artwork description & Analysis: Fat Chair exemplifies how Beuys could turn two common materials of everyday life – here the organic components of fat and wood – into a composite, open-ended metaphor for the human body, its impermanent condition, and the tendencies for social life to conform to constructed convention. Created in 1964 and encased in a glass, temperature-controlled museum display case, Fat Chair subsequently underwent a slow, natural process of decay until 1985, by which time the fat had almost entirely decomposed and virtually evaporated. Through these basic organic compounds, viewers may well have imagined themselves occupying this chair, thus endowing Fat Chair with the status of a “proxy” for self-reflection on the transience of human life and the need to consciously and expeditiously channel one’s own organic and-alas-ephemeral energies

Fat Chair (1964-1985)

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965)

Artwork description & Analysis: In this performance piece, Beuys could be viewed – his head and face covered in honey and gold leaf – through a gallery’s windows, a slab of iron tied to one boot, a felt pad to the other, as the artist cradled a dead hare. As though carrying out a strange music (if not some macabre bedtime story), Beuys frequently whispered things to the animal carcass about his own drawings hanging on the walls around him. Beuys would periodically vary the bleak rhythm of this scenario by walking around the cramped space, one footstep muffled by the felt, the other amplified by the iron. Every item in the room – a wilting fir tree, the honey, the felt, and the fifty-dollars-worth of gold leaf – was chosen specifically for both its symbolic potential as well as its literal significance: honey for life, gold for wealth, hare as death, metal as conductor of invisible energies, felt as protection, and so forth. As for most of his subsequent installations and performance work, Beuys had created a new visual syntax not only for himself, but for all conceptual art that might follow him.

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965)

Homogenous Infiltration for Grand Piano (1966)

Artwork description & Analysis: In simply wrapping a grand piano in utilitarian grey felt, Beuys encased a mammoth, sonic instrument normally employed for the creation of music, with a “bandage” that essentially muted and muzzled it. Like most of his works, the title reveals much of the idea behind it. “Homogenous” suggests that the composite work is, or has recently become, a singular item, something formerly sundered apart and healed, or made whole again. “Infiltration” may suggest one’s desire to penetrate the felt skin and restore the instrument back to the practical realm of the everyday bourgeois living room, or recital hall. The entire ensemble (in the manner of a visual “chamber music”) relates back to the artist’s own experience after being shot out of the skies during war duties and the German nation’s own desperate aspiration for a new kind of postwar, collective composure.

Homogenous Infiltration for Grand Piano (1966)

The Pack (1969)

Artwork description & Analysis: As though it were an oblique self-portrait, there is arguably no other work by Beuys that is so intimately representative of the artist’s healing fable by nomadic Tartars during World War II. Tethered to the Volkswagon Bus – a sure sign of an entire era of antiwar demonstration, international social upheaval, and underlying global nuclear Cold War dread – are twenty sleds, each equipped with what Beuys considered essential for personal survival of an unspecified (or unanticipated) human or natural calamity. Perhaps even more important, the sleds are exiting the bus, not being towed by it, as at first it may seem. This suggests that each sled is an independent and sentient entity, here released (or born) into the wild to find others in need of rescue.

The Pack (1969)

7000 Oaks: City Forestation Instead of City Administration (1982-1987)

Artwork description & Analysis: The subtitle of this work indicates that 7,000 Oaks was fundamentally a time-based, or “process” work of environmentalism and eco-urbanization. Beuys planted 7000 trees in the small, historic city of Kassel, Germany, over several years (carried out with the assistance of volunteers), each oak accompanied by a stone of basalt. Beuys’s concerted effort to physically, spiritually and metaphorically alter the city’s social spaces – economic, political, and cultural, among others – is what finally constituted a community-wide “social sculpture” (Beuys’s own terminology). 7000 Oaks officially began in 1982 at Documenta 7, the international exhibition of modern and contemporary art that is organized, by a guest curator, at Kassel every five years (since 1955). Beuys’s own ecological “happening” drew to an official close five years later, at Documenta 8, after being continued by others for a full year after Beuys’s own death.

7000 Oaks: City Forestation Instead of City Administration (1982-1987)

 Joseph Beuys trifft Andy Warhol

David Lynch

David Lynch

David Keith Lynch was born in Missoula, Montana on January 20, 1946. Lynch moved frequently as a child due to his father’s work as a research scientist. While still a student at a high school in Virginia, he began taking art classes at the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C. After high school, Lynch made his way through Boston, Europe and Philadelphia to study art further.






The Filmmaker

In the 1960s, David Lynch began making short films, beginning with the animated Six Men Getting Sick (1966) and The Alphabet (1967), a combination of animation and live action. The Grandmother (1970) was Lynch’s first completely live-action short film.

In the early 1970s, David started work on his first feature film, Eraserhead, which premiered in 1977. The bizarre movie had a dark worldview, disturbing subject matter and a surreal tone, but it garnered enough attention to land Lynch the job of directing The Elephant Man (1980), starring John Hurt. That film received eight Academy Award nominations, including two for Lynch in the categories of directing and adapted screenplay.

Lynch’s next directing gig wouldn’t go quite as well, as he was picked to helm the science fiction film Dune (1984), an adaptation of a well-loved book starring Kyle MacLachlan and Sting, among many others. The movie was plagued with production problems and received scathing reviews upon its release.

Chilling ‘Blue Velvet’

In typical Lynchian fashion, the director recovered by turning back to his own vision, coming out with Blue Velvet in 1986. The film, which starred MacLachlan, Laura Dern and Isabella Rossellini, took a chilling look at small-town life. Though its darker moments led to some outraged reactions, David received critical accolades and a second Academy Award nomination for directing. Lynch would continue in a similar vein with the violent Wild at Heart (1990). This controversial film won the Palme d’Or at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival.

Creates ‘Twin Peaks’

Lynch took his unique vision to television with the series Twin Peaks, which first aired in 1990 and featured muse MacLachlan as FBI agent Dale Cooper. Like Blue VelvetTwin Peaks took a deep dive into small-town America and found hidden horrors that had previously been unexplored. The offbeat show became a national topic of conversation when it first aired, though the second season’s story line drifted, losing viewers along the way. The series didn’t get picked up for a third season.

Lynch would revisit the show with the feature film Twin Peaks: Fire Walk With Me(1992), but the movie received a critical drubbing.

‘Lost Highway’ and ‘Mulholland Drive’

Lynch’s next big screen outing came in the form of Lost Highway (1997), a polarizing picture that put a new twist on his surreal themes. In 1999, he directed The Straight Story, a quiet, simple film—based on a true story—about a man traveling several hundred miles on a riding lawnmower. With Mulholland Drive(2001) and Inland Empire (2006), he revisited the dreamlike qualities of his more stylized creations. Mulholland Drive earned Lynch another Academy Award nomination for directing.

Leaving ‘Twin Peaks’ Miniseries

It was announced in autumn 2014 that Twin Peaks would return to the airwaves in 2016 as a Showtime miniseries. Various original cast members are slated to return, including MacLachlan. He was slated to direct each episode of the nine-part relaunch, yet in early April 2015 he announced on his Facebook page that he was pulling out of the series due to ongoing financial disputes.

“After 1 year and 4 months of negotiations, I left because not enough money was offered to do the script the way I felt it needed to be done,” Lynch said on his page. “This weekend I started to call actors to let them know I would not be directing. Twin Peaks may still be very much alive at Showtime. I love the world of Twin Peaksand wish things could have worked out differently.” Cast members have created an online video calling for Lynch to return.

Transcendental Meditation

Lynch is a proponent of transcendental meditation, a practice he has embraced since 1973. In 2005, he founded the David Lynch Foundation for Consciousness-Based Education and Peace, which provides support for students, people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and others who may benefit from this form of meditation.










At one time billed as the Moon Goddess, singer Nico’s dark, avante-garde music and deep, hypnotic voice were first heard in the Velvet Underground. She continued to work sporadically as a solo artist after leaving the Velvets, though a longtime heroin addiction and methadone dependency sidetracked her career.

The German-born Nico first worked as a model in Paris but got into music in the mid-’60s through a friendship with Rolling Stone Brian Jones and Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham, for whom she cut a British single, “The Last Mile,” on his Immediate label in 1965. The song was produced, cowritten, and arranged by Jimmy Page. The next year, Nico met Andy Warhol in New York, socialized at the Factory, and appeared in his film The Chelsea Girls. (She had played a small role in Fellini’s La Dolce Vita.) Warhol later introduced her to Lou Reed and John Cale in the Velvet Underground.

Nico got feature billing in the band (“the Velvet Underground and Nico”) but left after the first album. Nico’s connection with her old group remained strong, though, and on her 1968 solo debut she recorded songs by Cale and Reed. As well as some by a 16-year-old named Jackson Browne, who accompanied her during shows. Besides Browne, at some early shows she was accompanied by Tim Hardin and Tim Buckley. The Marble Index and Desert Shore were produced and arranged by Cale; on The Marble Index he played all the instruments except Nico’s own droning harmonium, her trademark.


She and Island allegedly had disputes during the recording (Eno kept them from dropping her), but in 1975 the label let her go. In the later ’70s and early ’80s, Nico did periodic solo shows on the club circuit. In 1981 she released her first LP in seven years, Drama of Exile, which included versions of the Velvet’s “I’m Waiting for the Man” and Bowie’s “Heroes.” She recorded what would be her last album, Camera Obscura, in 1985, again produced by Cale.

Leading a vagabond life, Nico floated from country to country, spending the last year of her life in Manchester, England. Reportedly, her methadone dependency had diminished and her songwriting had increased when she took her grown son, Ari (by French actor Alain Delon), on holiday to the Spanish island of Ibiza. On July 17, 1988, she had an accident on her bicycle; a cabdriver found her on the side of a steep mountain road and took her to four hospitals before she was admitted. Misdiagnosed as having a sunstroke, she died there the next evening of a cerebral hemorrhage. She was cremated in Berlin, where the urn containing her ashes was buried in her mother’s grave.

Pina Bauch

Pina Bauch

Pina Bausch

Pina Bausch was born 1940 in Solingen and died 2009 in Wuppertal. She received her dance training at the Folkwang School in Essen under Kurt Jooss, where she achieved technical excellence. Soon after the director of Wuppertal’s theatres, Arno Wüstenhöfer, engaged her as choreographer, from autumn 1973. She renamed the ensemble the Tanztheater Wuppertal. Under this name, although controversial at the beginning, the company gradually achieved international recognition. Its combination of poetic and everyday elements influenced the international development of dance decisively. Awarded some of the greatest prizes and honours world-wide. Pina Bausch is one of the most significant choreographers of our time.



In 1978 Pina Bausch changed her working methods. Invited by the director of the Bochum theatre Peter Zadek to create her own version of Shakespeare’s Macbeth. She found herself in a difficult situation. A large portion of her ensemble no longer wished to work with her as there was little conventional dancing in her pieces. She thus cast the Bochum guest performance with just four dancers, five actors and a singer. With this cast she was unable to deploy choreographic steps and so began by asking her performers associative questions around the themes of the play.

The result of this joint investigation was premiered on 22 April 1978 in Bochum under the lengthy title Er nimmt sie an der Hand und führt sie in das Schloss. Die andern folgen (He takes her by the hand and leads her into the castle, the others follow) and was almost drowned out by the storm of protest from the audience. Yet in making this unusual move, Pina Bausch had finally found the form her work would take, its dream-like, poetic imagery and bodily language justifying the worldwide success she soon achieved. In taking people’s essential emotions as its starting point – their fears and needs, wishes and desires – the Tanztheater Wuppertal was not only able to be understood throughout the world, it sparked an international choreographic revolution.

The secret of this success may lie in the fact that Pina Bausch’s dance theatre risks taking an unflinching look at reality, yet at the same time invites us to dream. It takes the spectators’ everyday lives seriously yet at the same time buoys up their hopes that everything can change for the better. For their part, they are required to take responsibility themselves. All the men and women in Pina Bausch’s pieces can do is test out, with the utmost precision and honesty. What brings each and every one closer to happiness, and what pushes them further from it; they cannot offer a panacea. They always, however, leave their public in the certainty that – despite all its ups and downs – they will survive life.

Javier Bardem

Javier Bardem

Javier Bardem.

Early Career

Javier Encinas Bardem was born on March 1, 1969, in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain. Born into a popular acting family—his mother. Pilar Bardem, has appeared in several of her son’s movies—Bardem built a considerable reputation among Spanish movie audiences as the sexy star of such steamy films as Las Edades de Lulu (The Ages of Lulu, 1990); Jamón, jamón (1992); and Huevos de oro (Golden Balls, 1993)—all of which were directed by filmmaker Bigas Luna (Huevos de oroalso featured fellow up-and-coming Latino actor Benicio Del Toro).

Bardem expanded into more dramatic roles in the mid-1990s, playing a drug addict in Días contados (Numbered Days, 1994) and a police detective in El Detective y la muerte (The Detective and Death, 1994). In 1995, he showed considerable comedic talent when he spoofed his heartthrob image in Boca a boca (Mouth to Mouth), playing a struggling young actor who gets a job as a phone sex operator. The actor reteamed with celebrated Spanish filmmaker Pedro Almodóvar—who had cast him in 1991’s Tacones lejanos (High Heels)—for 1997’s Carne trémula (Live Flesh), also featuring Spanish actress and Bardem’s future wife, Penelope Cruz. In that film. He had the meaty role of a policeman paralyzed in a shooting accident who ends up marrying the same woman his shooter is in love with.

Bardem made his English-language debut in Perdita Durango (1997), playing Romeo, the lover of the film’s title character, portrayed by actress Rosie Perez. The film made little impact on critics or audiences. In 1999, Bardem starred with Spanish siren Victoria Abril in Entre las piernas (Between Your Legs).

International Breakthrough

Javier Bardem’s performance as Cuban writer and revolutionary Reinaldo Arenas, who committed suicide in 1990, following a long struggle with AIDS, in Julian Schnabel’s edgy Before Night Falls (2000) earned Bardem the best reviews of his life—as well as a place on the international radar screen. With several major awards—including best actor honors from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics—under his belt. He became the first Spanish actor to earn an Academy Award nomination.

Bardem went on to tackle a prominent role in actor John Malkovich’s directorial debut, The Dancer Upstairs (2002). After a supporting role in the Tom Cruise-Jamie Foxx thriller Collateral (2004), he starred as a quadriplegic fighting for his right to die in The Sea Inside (2004), based on a true story.

More Acclaimed Roles

In 2007, Bardem appeared in two literary adaptations: Love in the Time of Cholera, derived from the best-selling novel by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and No Country for Old Men, adapted from the Cormac McCarthy novel of the same name. While Love in the Time of Cholera received mixed reviews, Bardem garnered wide praise for his performance as Anton Chigurh, a hitman who lives by his own code, in No Country for Old Men. A modern Western of sorts made by Ethan and Joel Coen, the dark film also stars Tommy Lee Jones (as the sheriff who frustratingly but continually tries to solve the string of murders that Chigurh leaves in his wake). One of the most striking physical features of Chigurh was his haircut—which Bardem actually referenced at the 2008 Academy Awards, in the acceptance speech that he delivered after receiving the Oscar for best supporting actor. “Thank you to the Coens for being crazy enough to think I could do that, and for putting one of the most horrible haircuts in history over my head,” Bardem told the audience.

Bardem starred with Penelope Cruz again in Woody Allen’s popular 2008 film, Vicky Cristina Barcelona. He later played a leading role in the 2010 film Eat Pray Love.

Luciano Pavarotti

Luciano Pavarotti





Teacher, amateur painter or sponsor of young talents: the course of the very popular singer Luciano Pavarotti does not fail to surprise you. Nicknamed “Lucky Luciano” or “Big P” because of its size of 1 meter 80, the tenor died on September 6, 2007 at age 71.


Tenor from father to son

At the Pavarotti, opera is a family affair! The father, Fernando, a baker by trade, also has a beautiful tenor voice and occasionally sings in small operatic productions, as well as in the church choir.

Every night, in their small apartment in Modena (Italy). The Pavarotti listen to the greatest Italian operatic arias on the family record player. Cradling the childhood of little Luciano with the voices of the great tenors Enrico Caruso and Beniamino Gigli.


A nanny

Because both parents have to work to support the family, Luciano is raised by his grandmother and entrusted, baby, to a nanny. A nanny who is breastfeeding another child, a little girl, Mirella, born a few months before Pavarotti.

Like her baby brother, Mirella Freni will become one of the great stars of the operatic scene, her path meeting that of Pavarotti many times. They meet first in the streets of their hometown, Modena, then in Mantua, where they both train with the same teacher, and finally, at the top of their respective careers, on the stage of the Scala in Milan or in recording studio with Herbert von Karajan.


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Twice miraculously

Little Luciano is only 12 when he suddenly falls into a coma. One day, he complains of a high fever and the next day he is totally paralyzed. He hears everything that is said around him but is unable to react. His family believes him dead and Luciano receives extreme unction. Mysteriously, the child finally wakes up, escaping from his own funeral …

Many years later, in 1975, Pavarotti recounts how he escaped death a second time: the plane in which he returns from Milan fails to crash on landing. He, who was already terrorized by air travel, is suing the company for ‘psychological trauma’, and receives the modest sum of $ 1 million in compensation.




While many singers have landed their first roles before age 25. Pavarotti, he remains until the same age a perfect anonymous. For seven long years, he studied conscientiously with his vocalist Arrigo Pola. And while Luciano still depends on the financial support of his parents. He gradually sees his friends leaving the family nest, making a living and getting married.

The situation is too frustrating for the aspiring singer who then decides to take a part-time job. That of teacher in primary school. And it is there, in front of young indocile blond heads, that he learns the workings of his future profession: the scene. It must capture attention, interest, even when it comes to subtraction or conjugation.



In 1968, the name of Pavarotti spread across Europe, among music lovers and theater directors. But the tenor dreams of conquering America! And then after a first engagement in San Francisco, in a production of La Bohème. He is finally invited to the Met: the New York temple of opera, the most prestigious halls across the Atlantic.

Now, the evening of the first, Luciano is sick. Influenza. Feverish. When he goes on stage, he shivers with cold and stress … However, the public will see only fire, Luciano will sing to the end, receiving the next day a shower of excellent reviews. This ‘first flu’ also earned him his first appearances in the popular TV show. Where Luciano now takes his habits, speaking as much of music as Italian pasta or football.


Après ce malheureux épisode grippal, Pavarotti devient très vigilant : il ne sort plus que paré d'un chapeau et emmitouflé dans son écharpe. Ici à l'aéroport de Toronto en 1982.


Vivian Maier

Vivian Maier

Vivian Maier, (born February 1, 1926, Bronx, New York, U.S.—died April 20, 2009, Oak Park, Illinois), American amateur street photographer who lived her life in obscurity as a nanny and caregiver in the suburbs of Chicago while producing an expansive body of photographic work that became a media sensation in late 2010, nearly two years after her death. Discovered in 2007, a cache of Maier’s never-printed negatives, undeveloped rolls of film, and unedited movies fascinated the public as her story unfolded.





Maier was born in the United States to an Austrian father and a French mother. She spent much of her childhood in France and likely became interested in photography at an early age. Her first photos were taken in France in the late 1940s with a Kodak Brownie camera. She returned to the United States in 1951, first living in New York City and in 1956 moving near Chicago, where she spent the rest of her life. Maier moved to Highland Park, a northern suburb of Chicago, to accept a job as a nanny for the Gensburg family, with whom she stayed until the early 1970s. By the time she began traversingand photographing the streets of Chicago, she was using a Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex camera.

Maier photographed the urban human landscape over the course of three decades. Her preferred subjects were children, the poor, the marginalized, and the elderly, some of them aware of her and some not. She also made a number of self-portraits. She worked in a black-and-white documentary style until the early 1970s, when she took up colour and also began to adopt a more abstract approach.

Though contradictory biographical details appear in sources that tell her story, it is clear from interviews with her employers and their children that she was an intensely private person with few, if any, friends. She chose to keep her work to herself. In addition to her tens of thousands of

photographic materials, Maier collected found objects throughout her life and saved an extraordinarily vast trove of belongings in the two storage lockers she rented. Those artifacts of her life were used to help reconstruct her biography.

In 2007 John Maloof, a real estate agent in Chicago, bought a box of undeveloped rolls of film and negatives for $400 at an auction house. The box was auctioned off as part of a group of items that had been collected from a storage unit sold for non-payment. Because the contents of the unit were split into several lots, Maier’s belongings were sold to more than one buyer. Three buyers in particular amassed the bulk of Maier’s work: Maloof, with about 100,000 negatives, more than 3,000 prints, hundreds of rolls of film, home movies, and audio interviews; Jeffrey Goldstein, with about 19,000 negatives, 1,000 prints, 30 homemade movies, and some slides; and Ron Slattery, who acquired more than 1,000 rolls of film at the auction. The privatization of her materials in this way raised legal, academic, and ethical questions about the posthumous use, profit from, and analysis of her work. Given that virtually none of the work by Maier that is being published and exhibited was processed or printed by the artist herself, one of the critical questions is of her personal aesthetic and artistic vision.

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961)







Who Was Ernest Hemingway?

Born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero (now in Oak Park), Illinois. Ernest Hemingway served in World War. I and worked in journalism before publishing his story collection In Our Time. He was renowned for novels like The Sun Also Rises. A Farewell to Arms. For Whom the Bell Tolls. The Old Man and the Sea, which won the 1953 Pulitzer. In 1954, Hemingway won the Nobel Prize. He committed suicide on July 2, 1961, in Ketchum, Idaho.


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Early Life and Career

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero (now in Oak Park), Illinois. Clarence and Grace Hemingway raised their son in this conservative suburb of Chicago. But the family also spent a great deal of time in northern Michigan. Where they had a cabin. It was there that the future sportsman learned to hunt. Fish and appreciate the outdoors.

In high school, Hemingway worked on his school newspaper. Trapeze and Tabula, writing primarily about sports. Immediately after graduation. The budding journalist went to work for the Kansas City Star. Gaining experience that would later influence his distinctively stripped-down prose style.

He once said, “On the Star you were forced to learn to write a simple declarative sentence. This is useful to anyone. Newspaper work will not harm a young writer and could help him if he gets out of it in time.”


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Military Experience

In 1918, Hemingway went overseas to serve in World War. I as an ambulance driver in the Italian Army. For his service, he was awarded the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery. But soon sustained injuries that landed him in a hospital in Milan.

There he met a nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky. Who soon accepted his proposal of marriage. Later left him for another man. This devastated the young writer but provided fodder for his works. “A Very Short Story” and, more famously, A Farewell to Arms.

Still nursing his injury and recovering from the brutalities of war at the young age of 20. He returned to the United States. And spent time in northern Michigan before taking a job at the Toronto Star.

It was in Chicago that Hemingway met Hadley Richardson. The woman who would become his first wife. The couple married and quickly moved to Paris. Where Hemingway worked as a foreign correspondent for the Star.


 photograph of a young man dressed in a military uniform


Life in Europe

In Paris, Hemingway soon became a key part of what Gertrude Stein would famously call “The Lost Generation.” With Stein as his mentor. Hemingway made the acquaintance of many of the great writers and artists of his generation, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ezra Pound, Pablo Picasso and James Joyce. In 1923. Hemingway and Hadley had a son. John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway. By this time the writer had also begun frequenting the famous Festival of San Fermin in Pamplona, Spain.

In 1925, the couple, joining a group of British and American expatriates. Took a trip to the festival that would later provided the basis of Hemingway’s first novel. The Sun Also Rises. The novel is widely considered Hemingway’s greatest work. Artfully examining the postwar disillusionment of his generation.

Soon after the publication of The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway and Hadley divorced. Also, due in part to his affair with a woman named Pauline Pfeiffer. Who would become Hemingway’s second wife shortly after his divorce from Hadley was finalized. The author continued to work on his book of short stories, Men Without Women.



Critical Acclaim

Soon, Pauline became pregnant and the couple decided to move back to America. After the birth of their son Patrick Hemingway in 1928. They settled in Key West, Florida, but summered in Wyoming. During this time, Hemingway finished his celebrated World War I novel. A Farewell to Arms, securing his lasting place in the literary canon.

When he wasn’t writing. Hemingway spent much of the 1930s chasing adventure. big-game hunting in Africa, bullfighting in Spain. Deep-sea fishing in Florida. While reporting on the Spanish Civil War in 1937, Hemingway met a fellow war correspondent named Martha Gellhorn (soon to become wife number three) and gathered material for his next novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, which would eventually be nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.

Almost predictably, his marriage to Pauline Pfeiffer deteriorated and the couple divorced. Gellhorn and Hemingway married soon after and purchased a farm near Havana, Cuba, which would serve as their winter residence.

When the United States entered World War II in 1941. Hemingway served as a correspondent and was present at several of the war’s key moments. Including the D-Day landing. Toward the end of the war, Hemingway met another war correspondent. Mary Welsh, whom he would later marry after divorcing Martha Gellhorn.

Personal Struggles and Suicide

The author continued his forays into Africa and sustained several injuries during his adventures, even surviving multiple plane crashes.

In 1954. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Even at this peak of his literary career, though, the burly Hemingway’s body and mind were beginning to betray him. Recovering from various old injuries in Cuba, Hemingway suffered from depression and was treated for numerous conditions such as high blood pressure and liver disease.

He wrote A Moveable Feast, a memoir of his years in Paris, and retired permanently to Idaho. There he continued to battle with deteriorating mental and physical health.

Early on the morning of July 2, 1961, Ernest Hemingway committed suicide in his Ketchum home.


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Hemingway left behind an impressive body of work and an iconic style that still influences writers today. His personality and constant pursuit of adventure loomed almost as large as his creative talent.

When asked by George Plimpton about the function of his art. Hemingway proved once again to be a master of the “one true sentence”: “From things that have happened and from things as they exist and from all things that you know and all those you cannot know, you make something through your invention that is not a representation but a whole new thing truer than anything true and alive, and you make it alive, and if you make it well enough, you give it immortality.”

In August 2018, a 62-year-old short story by Hemingway. “A Room on the Garden Side,” was published for the first time in The Strand Magazine. Set in Paris shortly after the liberation of the city from Nazi forces in 1944. The story was one of five composed by the writer in 1956 about his World War II experiences. It became the second story from the series to earn posthumous publication, following “Black Ass at the Crossroads.”




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